Auto parts warehouse planning
5 principles of auto parts warehouse planning
For large and medium-sized auto parts distribution companies, warehouse management is one of the most important management problems. In the warehouse, there are often phenomena such as failure to pick out goods, slow picking and shipping, and frequent delivery of wrong goods. These problems not only confuse warehouse managers, but also make customers complain, and even affect the sales business. On the surface, these are the problems of inadequate warehouse management, but in fact the basic work of the warehouse is not in place. In the basic work of the warehouse, the planning of the warehouse area is the most basic work.
Everyone has the experience of shopping in the supermarket. Shoppers do not need to be familiar with the goods in the supermarket to complete the shopping quickly and accurately. Entering the supermarket, you only need to look at the logo to find the area where the product belongs, and then look at the logo to find the shelf where the product is located, and you can easily find the product you need. Similar products are usually in adjacent shelves, and related products are usually in adjacent areas. Moreover, the internal layout of the same brand supermarket in different business locations is almost the same, and it is also not necessary for shoppers to be familiar with the goods to complete shopping quickly and accurately. The reason for this is because the supermarket’s internal planning and product planning are well done, with eye-catching signs and clear guidelines.
From a theoretical understanding, if the warehouse can plan the storage area and goods like a supermarket, even if the warehouse clerk is not familiar with the goods, he can also enter the storage area to quickly and accurately complete the picking. In fact, why do warehouses often make these errors? Can it be explained that it is related to the lack of clear planning of the warehouse area and the unclear rules of commodity placement? Or in other words, if the warehouse area is clearly planned and the rules for product placement are clear, then warehouse stewards should not make or have fewer errors in picking. Therefore, it is an important prerequisite to manage the warehouse and plan the warehouse area well in advance. Combining the characteristics of vehicle parts business and actual work experience, I personally think that the planning of the reservoir area should consider five principles: forward-looking positioning, functional layout, product structure, investment economy, and operation efficiency:
First, the forward-looking positioning. It means to estimate the size of the storage area in advance, to have an expected assessment of the total inventory, and to evaluate the maximum inventory per square meter area in a forward-looking manner, and strive to maximize the storage, rather than the actual storage. . With this guiding ideology, there will be a psychological expectation and reference standard for the total amount of warehouse storage. It is understood that the inventory level of the warehouse units of most auto parts distribution companies is generally around 2,000 yuan/square meter, the higher level is around 3,000 yuan/square meter, and the level of 4,000 yuan/square meter is not much. For example, an auto parts distribution company has a warehouse covering an area of 10,000 square meters (except for unloading and loading areas), with a shelf and stacking height of 2 meters. Regardless of the construction of a second-story warehouse area, what is the estimated maximum inventory? If calculated at 2,000-3,000 yuan/square meter, the inventory in the reservoir area is about 20-30 million. If calculated at 4,000 yuan/square meter, the maximum inventory in the reservoir area can reach 40 million, and the inventory can be increased by 30% ~100%. Obviously, the overall design and planning of the reservoir area based on the inventory of 40 million, the ultimate use efficiency of the reservoir area will be greatly improved. In general, 1/3 of the warehouse area is used for non-storage functions, which means that only 2/3 can be used for warehousing functions. The actual inventory per unit area of 10,000 square meters of warehouse area should reach nearly 6000 yuan/square meter. If the minimum height of the interior space of the warehouse allows the construction of three-layer shelves, the maximum inventory of the warehouse can reach 120 million. If calculated at 1.5 times the inventory-sales ratio, the warehouse can meet the needs of the auto parts distribution company to achieve 80 million monthly sales . Of course, in actual operation, maximizing storage in the warehouse depends not only on the level of positioning standards, but also on the results of own inventory data analysis.
Second, the functionality of the layout. This article discusses the internal layout of the warehouse area, so it mainly discusses the in-warehousing section among the three major operational sections of inbound, inbound, and outbound operations. The layout of the warehouse operation section is actually the scientific planning and overall design of the number, scale, location, facilities, passages and other elements of the warehouse. The layout of the reservoir area can be planned in different ways or standards, and there can be multiple layouts, but there are roughly two modes. One mode is divided into four functional areas: shelf area, storage area, turnover area, and waste area. Each functional area is divided into several warehouses. The advantage of this mode is that the overall layout is unified and the planning is one step. In place, the functional areas can be concentrated and connected, and the efficiency of picking operations is higher, but its disadvantage is that the one-time investment is relatively large. The other mode is divided into several warehouses as a whole, and each warehouse is divided into functional areas. The advantage of this mode is that it is easy to expand in batches, and the single investment is less. The disadvantage is that the efficiency of picking operations is low. , Warehouse utilization rate is not high, but this model is adopted by most auto parts distribution companies. In the second mode, the layout of the warehouse area can usually be divided into two levels: first, the entire warehouse area is divided into several warehouses, and the specific number of warehouses should be determined according to the rules for dividing warehouses and the classification of goods. It is recommended that each warehouse does not exceed 20,000 varieties, and the warehouse management personnel should be allocated according to the standard of 1200 varieties of goods stored per capita, so as to ensure that the workload of each warehouse management personnel is reasonable, but also to ensure the quality of warehouse management requirements; The second is to divide the basic functional areas of each warehouse. The basic functions of the warehouse include passages, office areas, tool areas, and storage areas. The storage areas can be subdivided into acceptance areas, whole cargo areas, bulk cargo areas, stocking areas, and packaging and packaging. Area, review area, waste area, return area, etc. In fact, these functions do not need to be subdivided. Special warehouses can be set up for waste products. The inspection area, stocking area, review area, packaging and packaging functions can be combined into the receiving/stocking area, because this area is not used for storage, only for turnover use. Therefore, in general, each warehouse area only needs to be divided into the most basic functional areas such as office area, tool area, receiving/preparing area, shelf area, storage area, aisle, etc. These functional areas must be marked with lines and their area It depends on the actual determination of each warehouse.
Third, the structure of commodities. A relatively large-scale auto parts distribution company operates from five to six thousand to hundreds of thousands of auto parts. Moreover, there are many brands, various models, different origins, and different shapes. These unique characteristics determine the planning of the auto parts warehouse. Complexity. Therefore, there is no unified or universal standard in the planning of the reservoir area, nor does it exist which method is more reasonable and scientific. The specific decision should be based on the comprehensive factors such as the enterprise’s own needs and the layout of the reservoir area. Most auto parts distributors tend to adopt multiple standards instead of a single standard. Some are classified by supplier or place of origin, some are classified by accessory category, some are classified by accessory structure, some are classified by vehicle type, and some are classified by accessories. They are classified by frequency or quantity, and some are classified by accessory form or weight. For example, a certain auto parts distribution company is mainly engaged in heavy, medium and light truck parts, operating nearly 80,000 varieties, with a storage area of 16,000 square meters. It is divided into 4 districts and 23 warehouses, each of which manages nearly 20,000 varieties. The rule is that in addition to the establishment of special warehouses for first-line brands according to manufacturers, in general, follow the principles of “commodity size or quality, turnover frequency and quantity of goods in and out of warehouses, occupied area and storage methods, and the combination of shelf area and storage area”. Product planning for the structural system and category of accessories.
Fourth, the economy of investment. Because of the high cost and low profit of the auto parts distribution industry, the economy of investment is often an important factor considered by most auto parts distribution companies. The investment in the planning of the storage area is mainly the investment in tools and shelves. Tools can be purchased at any time, and the shelves must consider factors such as the type of shelves, materials and the regularity of the storage area. From the actual situation of most auto parts distribution companies, the shelves mainly adopt three types: standard shelves, steel tube shelves, and angle iron shelves. Standard shelves can be divided into light-duty, medium-duty, and heavy-duty shelves according to their load-bearing capacity. Its advantages are standard, beautiful, easy to disassemble, and easy to expand. The disadvantage is that the investment is large and the value is not maintained. Steel pipe racks have the advantages of easy construction, the most economical investment, and value preservation. The disadvantage is that the laminates are uneven. The angle iron shelf is the most commonly used. Its advantages are regular and flat, but the disadvantage is that it is difficult to make, the investment is larger than the steel pipe shelf, and its value is not maintained. The economics of investment are relative. The key is to base itself on its own reality and future development, from the perspective of cost and benefit comparison, fully consider the location of the warehouse before planning the reservoir area, and make a reasonable investment plan and budget plan. Maybe spend a small amount of money to get things done. Otherwise, it was discovered afterwards that the planning of the reservoir area was unreasonable, and it would be quite difficult to adjust or reform.
Fifth, the effectiveness of the job. Means that the layout of the warehouse area should consider the continuity of operations in the warehouse, reduce repetitive operations, reduce the number of loading and unloading, shorten the handling distance, and improve the speed and accuracy of sorting and distribution. Usually, in the actual operation of the storage area planning, pay attention to the following points as much as possible: one is to store goods in different areas according to the characteristics of the goods, and to store goods with similar characteristics in a centralized manner; the other is to store goods with a large unit volume and large unit mass in the stack Cargo area or the bottom of the shelf, and close to the outbound area and passage; third, store the goods with high turnover rate in the most convenient location for loading and unloading in and out of the warehouse; fourth, store the special warehouse or the goods classified by vehicle type in a centralized manner for easy operation Sorting and distribution operations; Fifth, the entire packaged goods are stored in the stacking area, and the bulk goods are stored in the shelf area. At the same time, with the design of cargo location management, batch management, informatization means, and operation process in place, as warehouse management personnel become more familiar with warehouse planning and commodities, the speed and accuracy of picking and distributing goods will be reduced. Will be continuously improved.
Reservoir area planning is the basis of warehouse management, warehouse management is the guarantee of commodity sales, and commodity sales are the embodiment of service levels. At present, like other industries, competition in the auto parts distribution industry is becoming increasingly fierce, and service has become an important means for auto parts distribution companies to gain a competitive advantage. The difference in service levels is not only reflected in the sales of goods, but also in the basic internal work. Therefore, the planning of the reservoir area and the management of the warehouse can provide effective support for commodity sales and promote the improvement and promotion of the overall service level of the enterprise.